Prior Missions to the Moon

Most of these were programs, each with multiple flights.

1959-76: Luna (flybys, hard landers, sample return and orbiters) - Soviet
1964-5: Ranger (hard landers - purposely crashed! - with TV cameras) - US
1964-79: Zond (flybys, and return to Earth of photos) - Soviet
1966-7: Lunar Orbiter (orbiter with high resolution cameras to select landing sites, and med res for mapping) - US
1966-8: Surveyor (soft landers with cameras and chemical analyses) - US
1968-1972: Apollo (6 landings on the Moon with 12 humans exploring the surface and returning samples) - US
1970-73: Lunakhod (two rovers to explore lunar surface, imaging and making geophysical measurements) - Soviet

The Great Gap

20 years of lunar abandonment

1990: Galileo (2 flybys of Moon entorute to Jupiter; first modern imaging) - US
1994: Clementine (military orbiting of Moon to demonstrate Stars Wars technology; high res imaging and topo mapping) - US
1998-9: Lunar Prospector (low cost orbiter that mapped chemical composition, gravity and magnetism, and discovered evidence for water ice at the poles) - US